Как зрительная система человека сортирует объекты

Человеческий глаз – очень сложно устройство. А в целом зрение – еще более сложный механизм. Например, он способен автоматически сортировать объекты, как более или менее приоритетные. К такому выводу пришли ученые Национального исследовательского университета Высшая школа экономики в ходе эксперимента.

Они привели такой пример. Когда человек смотрит на яблоню, то мгновенно отделяет яблоки от листьев. Получается, что процесс быстрой категоризации осуществляется автоматически на основе информации о различиях между объектами.

Есть гипотеза, что зрительная система каким-то образом снижает «разрешение файлов» — это необходимо, чтобы избежать перегрузок мозга. Вместо детального анализа объектов, зрительная система сортирует их по категориям, ориентируясь на общие признаки.

Ученые поставили эксперимент. Участникам предложили наблюдать за фигуркой несимметричного креста и нажимать на кнопку, когда крест повернется. То есть внимание людей было сосредоточено на том двигает ли крест. В то же время ученые записывали активность мозга.

В итоге авторы исследования пришли к выводу, что категоризация происходит сразу по нескольким признакам, в том числе и сложноустроенным.

 

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